Rolling Recumbent, Part 1: The Utility of Recumbents


You’ve seen those oddball, laid-back bikes being ridden by slightly goofy guys (yeah, it’s usually guys). They’re smiling. They’re waving. And they’re looking suspiciously comfortable. Recumbents are practically the opposite of everything that bicycling is supposed to be about. There’s no crying in baseball, and there’s blessedly little comfort in bicycling. Right? Well, maybe not. From the start, recumbents have been criticized for being too comfortable. They first made a splash on the international cycling scene in 1933, when an enterprising French bicycle manufacturer, Charles Mochet, applied to have his “velorizontal” bicycles certified for competition by the Union Cycliste Internationale, or UCI. The Mochet recumbents had distinct aerodynamic advantages.

Recumbent bicycles offer less aerodynamic drag and more visibility.
Recumbent bicycles offer less aerodynamic drag and more visibility.

For the same amount of effort, a rider can go faster on a recumbent because they’re presenting less wind resistance. Recumbents both look faster and feel faster. Humans have evolved to see small objects in motion as faster than larger objects going the same speed (because small, fast predators were more dangerous than big, slow predators). A Ferrari or a Ducati looks fast just standing still. As in a low-slung sports car or motorcycle, the sense of speed on a recumbent is exaggerated by being closer to the ground.

Because the body isn’t folded over into an inherently uncomfortable position, recumbent riders can be more efficient. Cyclists on recumbents don’t suffer from the neck pain, numb hands and compressed feet that are the bane of traditional bikes. Recumbents are often a recovery vehicle for injured riders, who’ve crashed their “regular” bikes but don’t want to give up riding altogether (including yours truly).

There’s also an argument that recumbents are safer in crashes. Instead of landing on their hands in crashes (or in my case, my shoulder), recumbent riders are thrown forward onto their feet. It’s far easier to “run off” a crash upright than it is to catch yourself on your hands. In a recumbent crash, head injuries are less likely, too.

Some folks say that recumbents are more dangerous because of their lower profile. Supposedly recumbents aren’t as visible as traditional bikes. But ‘bent riders retort that because their bikes are so unique, they actually get more attention on the road. And being at eye-level with automobile drivers makes it easier to notice distracted drivers, as well as make eye contact with drivers.

Paul Morand rode a Mochet recumbent bicycle to victory in the 1934 Paris-Limoges road race.
Paul Morand rode a Mochet recumbent bicycle to victory in the 1933 Paris-Limoges road race.

Recumbent bikes are fast. They’re so fast, in fact, that they’ve been banned since 1934 by cycling’s governing body, the UCI. After first certifying recumbents for competition, the UCI acceded to the demands of traditional bicycle manufacturers and reversed their position. Paul Morand, a piddling Cat-II racer, won the Paris-Limoges race on a “velorizontal” Mochet recumbent, and Francis Faure shattered the two-decade-old Hour Record on a Mochet. Before the next season, the UCI introduced rules that effectively banned recumbents. Ostensibly the decision was made for safety reasons, but economics and tradition played no small part. The state of mainstream cycling has been essentially stultified in regard to rider position and comfort ever since. Bicycle design in the past hundred years has been mostly evolutionary, not revolutionary.

“HORIZONTALLY…Francis Faure seems to be enjoying a siesta in contrast to his competitors…It had to happen! Faure was too comfortably extended, and fell asleep for real…Wake me up when the race is over…The jealous spectators will also demand horizontal seating” Caption from a French editorial cartoon, originally published February, 1934.

The Hour Record, the test of how far a cyclist can ride in a single hour, has been the gold standard for both cardiovascular fitness and technological refinement in bicycling. Time and again cyclists have used new technology to ride faster, be it chain drives, pneumatic tires, tensioned wheels or derailleurs. Francis Faure won numerous times in velodromes on a Mochet recumbent, and broke the Hour Record (which had stood for nearly twenty years) when he rode 45km in 1935, only to see his record revoked by the UCI. Sixty years later Chris Boardman’s hour record of 56km would also be invalidated by the UCI for too-novel technology. Under the new rules even Bradley Wiggins, Olympian cyclist and Tour de France winner, has only been able to ride 54km in an hour in 2015.

Meanwhile, the hour record on a recumbent was set at 92 kilometers by Francesco Russo, nearly twice as fast as what can be accomplished on a “real” bike. While the best sprinters in the Tour de France might be able to reach 60 or 70 kilometers per hour (about 40mph), the record set at the World Human-Powered Speed Challenge in a fully-faired recumbent is 123 kilometers per hour.

Sam Whittingham on his way to setting a new human-powered speed record at the World Human-Powered Vehicle Speed Challenge.
Sam Whittingham preparing to set a new record at the World Human-Powered Vehicle Speed Challenge. Only three human beings have ever reached the “decimach” (one tenth the speed of sound) under their own power.

Recumbents are so fast that they’re banned from Strava. While Strava is supposed to be a motivational community where riders can compare times on road segments, traditional riders complained to Strava that recumbent riders were too fast. Strava now invalidates winning times for riders accused of riding “bicycles with modifications including wind fairings or other means of minimizing drag…The Segment Leaderboards are a coveted and defended area on Strava, and we do our best to keep them fair.”

So recumbents can be fast, but are they useful? Can they carry a load? Again, the answer is emphatically yes. Look no further than Maria Leijerstam’s sprint to the South Pole on a recumbent tricycle. She rode 650 kilometers in j
ust ten days. Her next closest competitor took almost forty days to cover the same distance on a traditional, upright bike. Recumbent bicyclists have won other, non-UCI, events as well, such as the Race Across America. And amongst the randonneuring set, recumbents have a small but devoted following.

Maria Leijerstam training in Iceland on her custom, recumbent, fat-tired expedition tricycle.
Mamas, don’t let your daughters grow up to ride tricycles. Maria Leijerstam training in Iceland on her custom, recumbent, fat-tired expedition tricycle. Maria holds the record for the fastest human being to the South Pole.

Recumbents also make great rickshaws. Several companies manufacture relaxed pedicabs, and bike hackers have also built their own.

Reno Tondelli built himself a better rickshaw in his garage, no doubt inspired by Atomic Zombie.
Reno Tondelli built himself a better rickshaw in his LA garage, no doubt inspired by Atomic Zombie.

Recumbent rickshaws can be seen in Mexico City, Amsterdam, and Berlin, to mention just a few cities. They are stable, comfortable and often assisted by electric power. They look both futuristic and retrograde at the same time.

Sight seeing in a Dutch recumbent rickshaw. The integrated roof keeps everyone dry.
Sight seeing in a Holland in a recumbent rickshaw. Form follows function: the integrated roof keeps everyone dry and cool.

Don’t be surprised to see a Steampunk’d recumbent at your next ‘Con, either. Recumbents fit right into the “what-if,” revisionist ethos of Steampunk cosplay.

A “steam bicycle,” in a screenbgrab from the science-fictitious game “80 Days.”

Recumbent bikes are also great family bikes. Having ridden with my wife and my children on several upright tandems and hauled my kids in any number of trailers, I can say that it’s far easier to converse with somebody when I’m leaning back toward them, not leaning forward. My five-year-old son loves his rearward “tail gunner” trailer perspective, and he takes great pride in telling me what the cars behind us are doing.

Recumbents are family, too.
Recumbents are family, too.

It’s true: Recumbent Riders have a goofy grin, a side effect of the Recumbent Rock Star Phenomena: If you ride a recumbent around town, you will smile more and wave more and commune more with your fellow citizens as you hear, every three or four blocks, “That bike is so cool!”

or, “Woah! Check out the bike!”

or, “What the what?!? What IS that? What is that even called? Did you make it yourself? Where can I get one? Is it comfortable? Is it fast?”

Unless you’re antisocial, the aerodynamic advantage of a recumbent that allows you to get somewhere faster is offset by the extra time that you have to spend explaining your awesome ride. Don’t ride a recumbent if you don’t want to be an ambassador of cycling.

But are there downsides to recumbents? Aside from the Rock Star Effect, yes. Foremost is the challenge of learning to ride a bike in a new position. Many recumbents require longer cables, which in turn creates more maintenance. Some components on recumbents may not be regularly stocked at your Local Bike Shop or Walmart. They can be harder to park and lock to a rack. Putting a recumbent bike in your car or on top of it can be a challenge, if not downright impossible. Maintaining a recumbent is its own distinct skill as well. I knew a mechanic at a Local Bike Shop that hated recumbents: they were a square peg in a sea of round holes. They didn’t fit into the repair stands, they didn’t fit well into a cramped repair shop, parts had to be special ordered, the chains and cables were all extra long, and they didn’t stack nicely with other bikes. From this mechanic’s point of view, they were annoying and time-consuming. If you’re going to ride a recumbent, you need to either have decent bike mechanic skills or be willing to pay a good mechanic for their time.

What accounts for the recent recumbent resurgence? In a word, the Internet. While mainstream bicycle development is driven by big money and big ticket events like Trek and the Tour de France, a growing number of recumbent bicycles are being made by tinkerers and amateurs. Websites like Atomic Zombie and Bent Rider Online celebrate those who hack, chop, weld and modify new bikes from odd parts. Instead of buying someone else’s conception of a “good bike,” Atomic Zombies build their own custom contraptions, inspired in no small part by the virtual community of like-minded folks they find online.

So, buck the status quo and be a “bike-sexual.”

Don’t Miss Rolling Recumbent Part 2!

Wesley Cheney bikes for family, fun, profit and necessity in Norfolk, Virginia. He writes about bikes and kilts at Foto by Wes and (re)builds bamboo bikes and bamboo kayaks at 757 Makerspace. When he is not delivering sandwiches for Jimmy Johns on his bicycle, he aspires to earn (another) Bachelors in Music Education at his alma mater, Old Dominion University. Wesley loves leather saddles, full fenders, helmet-mounted lights and mirrors, platform pedals, front racks, double kickstands, and vintage friction Suntour Command shifters. He warbles on a flugelhorn, sings bass in the choir of Christ and Saint Lukes Church, and studies ukulele under the amazing Skye Zentz.

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19 thoughts on “Rolling Recumbent, Part 1: The Utility of Recumbents”

  1. BluesCat says:

    I’m still riding my steel-framed Sun EZ Sport.

    Even though it is heavy by bike standards, as my main commuter I’ve always said that the idea is comfort, NOT speed. Think of it as a two-wheeled limousine rather than a two-wheeled sports car.

    As far as getting mechanic work done, if you ride a ‘bent then you need to make sure the shop you take it to is eager to work on it; that should be one of your most important criteria for shop selection. After all, if some mechanic turns up his nose to working on ‘bents because “they’re different” or for some other lame reason, what other new, different, technology will he remain ignorant about?

  2. Island Dave says:

    Car free for going on 6 years now. Over 32,000 miles on my first Velomobile in 4.5 years and over 8,000 miles on my second in 1.5 years.

    I do all of my own maintenance and any repair if and when needed.

    Fast, comfortable and an all weather machine. I do all of my grocery shopping, all of my errands with this machine. It has a goodly amount of floor space.

    My first 60+ miles of 2017 were at night in the rain with temperatures in the upper 30’s Fahrenheit. Snug as a bug in a rug.

    Here is a short clip of me being chased in my second Velomobile. It was my second day of riding it. I bet I had maybe 50 miles on it at that time

    Note the Roadie we pass at a 1:12 into the video.

  3. Recumbents have their uses, and I wouldn’t tell anyone to stop enjoying theirs, but you’re overlooking two key issues: the comfy ones aren’t fast, and all recumbents are awkward bikes.

    -They’re not that fast. Yes, properly optimized ones are very quick, but if you don’t pick a recumbent that’s truly built for speed, it won’t have any aero advantage over a dialed-in conventional bike. A surprising number of common designs (almost anything with under-seat steering) are less aero than a good upright bike. And they’re heavier. So you get a bit more top speed, at best, in exchange for a bike that climbs slower and accelerates ponderously.

    -They’re awkward. Almost all recumbents give up standing while riding, hopping up all but trivial curbs, and offer awkward low-speed handling. Plus they’re longer and heavier than their upright equivalents. The result is a bike that has many unpleasant characteristics for most practical cycling.

    The truly fast recumbents (and yes, they are awesomely, beautifully fast) take that awkwardness to the next level. We’re talking bikes that range from slightly clumsy (for the more practically-minded faired bikes and trikes) to unable to start riding without external assistance (like HPV flying 200 bikes, which even feature video monitors instead of windscreens). But all of them are bulky and relatively heavy, too.

    On the other hand, I know people who were only able to comfortably ride a recumbent (due to neck issues), so there’s that. There are other niches where they make some amount of sense. I don’t want to oversell my argument here: there’s reasons to like recumbents. But they’re no panacea.

  4. Island Dave says:

    How many miles, how many recumbents have you actually ridden?

    You are making observations but It doesn’t sound like you have ridden any.

    Below is a link to the Popular Science, March of 2009 article called “Power from The People”. A very cool article.

    This quote is the last paragraph of the section on “Bullet Bikes” which is about Velomobiles.

    “Human-powered vehicles are just unbelievably efficient,” says Sam Whittingham, a custom-bicycle builder from British Columbia who last year claimed the “decimach prize” by becoming the first person to travel at one tenth the speed of sound on land (just over 82 mph) using muscle power alone. “The fact that 100 watts will carry you at 30 or 40 kilometers an hour is amazing.” Against that, the image of whole cities choked with vehicles weighing a couple hundred times as much and sucking exponentially more power, seems like . . . actually, an opportunity.”

    I’ve referred to my Velomobile many times as a high speed barcalounger. It is a great ride. Very comfortable. Very Fast.

    I’ve been pulled over by the cops 10 times in my first 35,000 miles. The cops are looking for license and registration as they are assuming I’m running a motorized vehicle with no license plates and I’m rolling at speeds that if motorized it would require that it be licensed, registered, inspected and insured. My first stop by the cops I was doing 38 in a 25 mph zone on a flat level road. It took the cop a mile and a half to catch me after he had turned around and only then because I was sitting at a stop light. I told him that he had made my day. He said, “Well, you were doing 38 in a 25 zone.” I then put my hands together as in prayer and said to him, “Can I have a ticket please?’ He was laughing so hard, he wouldn’t give me a ticket.

    To ride a conventional road bike, even a top of the Line Trek Madone or Cervelo compared to a Velomobile is like riding with a permanently open drogue chute dragging behind you.

    My Velomobile is 65 lbs, I’m 230 lbs and I carry a tool kit and various spare parts plus a Camel Back. If you look at the video link in my previous posting we were tapping a very easy 40+ mph in places. At about one minute into the video you see the roadie dressed in white off in the distance. At 1:15 he is behind us. I bet he was doing close to 20 when we flew by him. This is typical.

    A road bike is a one trick pony. It’s a road bike. I have floor space in my Velomobile. I’ve loaded it with over 40 lbs of groceries and still dropped one of the fastest local rider’s who had an exquisite top of the line Cervelo. Plus he was 25 years younger than me.

    My best one day ride was 150 miles on Cape Cod in 9 hours rolling time in March 2010.

    Back in August 2011, 36 Velomobiles were ridden from Portland Oregon to Washington DC in 4 weeks. These weren’t professional racers. They were people who ride Velomobiles from a wide range of ages from mid 30’s to mid 60’s. 24 of them were from all over Europe.

    Google “ROAM. Roll Over America” Some pretty cool videos.

    They had three rest days during the 4 weeks but even so they averaged 125 miles a day. They had many a day that was much longer to keep that average up where it was.

    1. Wesley Cheney says:

      Have you tried out an ELf, Dave? I’d love to hear your comparisons.

  5. Matt Maynard says:

    This video is mega Island Dave. I presume you are going downhill at that speed? What is a sustainable speed in your velomopbile on a long flat ride? Is the music coming form a sound system built into the velomobile? Inspired. Thanks, Matt

  6. Matt Maynard says:

    Thanks for sharing this Wes. I want to be a bikesexual too and ride a recumbent! Just saw this about the recumbent helicopter that you might enjoy.

    1. Wesley Cheney says:

      Thanks, Matt! I love the video.

  7. Island Dave says:

    Matt Maynard. They were the rollers you saw us on. Up and down The main thing is the aerodynamics. A long flat 20 to 25 mph would be a comfortable. I run a triple road crank in my Velomobile, 55/42/30 teeth chainrings and an 11/34, 9 speed cassette in the back. Over 95% of the time I ride in the big 55t ring shifting it like a 9 speed.

    I did a local 64 mile charity ride where I started mid pack of 500 + riders. Granted it is not a race but there are a great many of the riders who treat it that way.
    It took me 6 miles to work my way through the pack and off the front.

    At around 10 miles I got into the hills. At around 13 miles I was caught and passed approaching the crest of a hill by 25 to 30 roadies. I came over that hill and started to catch and pass them back at 45 mph. Up hills and down hills going back and forth, by the time we got to a turn around at around 22 miles it was down to me and a team of 8 riders all wearing the same kit and riding together like a fine tuned swiss watch. Everyone else was off the back. At about 25 miles we were pretty well sticking together until we got into some rollers that lead up to a short steep hill locally called “The Wall”. Momentum, legs and aerodynamics, I crested “The Wall” at 35 mph. They were still back there on a long gradual 125 foot climb in 3/4’s of a mile. They were right on my tail at the crest of the climb at around 28 miles into the ride. I came off that crest and was hitting 50 mph in no time. I had one more big hill that crested at around 30 miles into the ride that had a huge descent where I was tapping 55 mph. It was all flats and rollers all the way back to the finish. I didn’t see another rider until I caught the tail end at about 40 miles into my ride of the 32 mile ride that started an hour after my ride and was flat. I got back to the finish and there were 19 riders who had already gotten back. Those 19 were the fastest of the shorter ride that started an hour after my ride and had very small hills.

    My average speed on that ride was 21 mph in 3 hours, 3 minutes non stop.

    I’ve ridden in a tight line of Velomobiles where we are cruising on level at 38 mph for 5 miles strait. There is no draft off of these machines but riding together is a blast.

    1. Wesley Cheney says:

      Awesome story!

  8. Island Dave says:

    Here are a couple of videos of a two day 170 mile tour up and down Cape Cod that I lead in August of 2015. 80 miles the first day and 90 miles the second. We had a total of 14 riders.

    R.O.C.C. Roll Over Cape Cod.

    The first video is a compilation of videos shot by different riders.

    The second video was shot by one rider the second day of the ride at around 20 miles into a 90 miles day and out of the hills of Wellfleet and Truro. We were a few miles into the Cape Cod Rail Trail, a 23 mile rail trail where this was shot.

    There are a number of much longer videos of the event. Just google “Velomobiles on Cape Cod”.

    There are also a bunch of videos to watch just by googling “Velomobile on Martha’s Vineyard.”

  9. BluesCat says:

    Ryan Cousineau,

    I was going to respond to your post sooner, but I got distracted by Island Dave’s videos! I wanted to touch on a few points which Dave didn’t address.

    “Standing in the pedals” for additional power is way overrated. The complaint that “on a recumbent you can’t put the power of your weight to the pedals like you can on a conventional bike” can be looked at another way: on a conventional bike the power of your weight is the MAXIMUM amount of power you can put to the pedals, where on a ‘bent you can put MUCH more power to the pedals than just your weight. On a ‘bent your legs are wedged between the seat back and the pedal, which means you can put WAY more power to pedal than just your weight.

    The action is similar to performing a deadlift, where you are using the power of your legs to push against the earth as you pull the weight up. The world record for a raw deadlift (only a weight belt allowed) is 1,014 pounds; performed by a guy who weighed around 400 pounds.

    And grousing about the inability to “hop curbs” with a ‘bent is sort of like complaining that a Ferrari or a Rolls Royce ain’t “proper automobiles” because they aren’t 4x4s and don’t have the ground clearance to take on a Jeep on a hill climb!

    My ‘bent is steel framed and un-faired, and – even carrying my panniers, my laptop, my change of clothes, my work shoes, my toolkit, my pump and my large morning latte in my stainless steel commuter cup – I still regularly pass some roadies in the morning headed into work (and my route to work is mostly uphill). A ZZipper fairing (a front fairing for the rider alone) improves efficiency by about 10%, a full fairing is better yet, so I would imagine if I were to commit to a fairing I would pass up a lot MORE roadies!

    Recumbents aren’t awkward, they’re just different, and once you get used to the differences the advantages far outweigh any disadvantages. The wheelbase of a short wheelbase (SWB) ‘bent is within centimeters of the typical racing bike, so there are no REAL issues with bike length.

    I’ve heard the laughable argument that the racing associations don’t want to allow ‘bents because that would make the bike design issue about “bike technology” and not about the people, the athletes, doing the racing. It’s laughable because at its core a bicycle is all about technology to begin with; from the carbon fiber frames to the concept of the pedal itself (nothing but a glorified lever), a bike IS technology. In short, if you were to take ALL of the “technology” out of “bike racing,” the Tour de France would become a butt naked foot race!

    If the racing associations had the courage of their convictions about the subject, they would open up the qualified rides to “anything human powered with two wheels.” If recumbents really ARE inferior racing machines, you would see them make a brief appearance for a couple of years and they would become a footnote in bicycling history.

    I don’t think that would happen, though. I think within a few months you would see Trek, Specialized, Giant and all the rest of the manufacturers fielding their own models of racing recumbents! And with the money that THOSE folks could put into the R&D of it, I think you’d discover THOSE bikes to be incredibly light and amazingly fast!

    1. Wesley Cheney says:

      What an awesome image: the Yellow Jersey on a Recumbent! But I won’t hold my breath…It’s a better return on investment for the powers that be to maintain parity.

    2. Wesley Cheney says:

      In my experience, a recumbent is awkward for about as long as anything else new. After a while, you get settled into new tools and routines. But I will grant that the first time on a recumbent I was about as clumsy as my first time on ice skates, or my first time on rollerblades. It takes some time to create new neural networks in order to work efficiently with a new tool.

  10. Something to say solntsevelomobil trailer Solar uphill rides on the calculator barely even in the sun, but without the help of the pedals can even move back back because at low speed, especially if motor-applied wheel – its efficiency drops sharply. However, Thanks Wesley for this nice post 🙂

    1. Wesley Cheney says:

      Thanks, Richard.

  11. BluesCat says:


    Oh, yeah, I’m not deluding myself about the idea that bike manufacturers would use the power of their purse to move the science of human-powered transportation to greater speeds and efficiency!

    And think of the HORRORS the spandex crowd would endure if they were to wake up one day and discover they were SHARING their precious bike-makers with the likes of Island Dave; or ME; or folks with back or neck problems who really want to ride; or others who simply want to find a way to work which doesn’t involve making the automakers even richer!

  12. Island Dave says:

    ELFs are nice but I have read that they aren’t designed to get much over 20 mph. I think that they would be perfect in an inner city situation.

  13. Island Dave says:

    Living on a small 100 sq mile island we have a pretty good size contingent of roadies. Even more so during the warmer months. It was an 11 month wait for my Velomobile from ordering it to delivery.
    I had never ridden or seen one other than videos. It took some time to develope my Bent Legs.

    The local cyclists thought I was nuts when I described what one could do with a Velomobile. I was only saying what I had read and seen via YouTube as I had never seen one in real life. I have to say that it took some mileage before I had developed my “Bent Legs”.

    The Island cycling community knew that a new strange machine was due.

    About 6 months after I had gotten it I was invited to participate in a short 5.5 mile time trial. From the start it was a half mile to a 90 degree right hand tune. Mid course was a just about 180 degree right hand turn and a final 90 degree right hand turn. Basically a big triangle.

    My first Velomobile was around 80 lbs empty. I carried a Camel Back Mule with a 100 oz bladder. I also carried a roughly 9 lb tool kit in a Stanley tool bag. I happened to also of had a Stanley Stainless Steel Thermos full of coffee on board.

    I raced against 9 of the fastest riders on the Island. There were Cervelo’s, Trek Madone’s and a Merlin time trial specific bike were in the line up with me going out last.

    We had road marshals at the corners. I hit that U-Turn from the far right hand side of the road shaving the point of that turn at 17 mph. My lowest speed on course after the start. The rider on the Merlin Time Trial Bike went down on that turn.

    The top three riders were 28, 32 and 36 seconds slower that me.
    The young man who was 28 seconds slower was also 35 years younger than me.

    I blasted across the finish line and rode to the first turn where I turned around. I got back and the group were all standing around a computer when I yelled out “Who Won?” “YOU DID!”, was the response.

    You should have seen their faces when I pulled out that thermos and poured myself a cup of coffee while saying with a smile, “Not bad for an old hippy in a pedal car.”

    They posted the times on their FB page and don’t cha know they left me off. I wrote “You had forgotten something” to which they responded that I “Wasn’t riding a real bike”.

    I came back with, “You invited me and I kicked your collective asses”.

    I have since been accused of “Tormenting the Roadies.”

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